Engelsk B

Ny ordning

2018 - Vejledende opgavesæt 2

Varighed: 5 timer

Vejledning til opgavesættet

Du skal besvare følgende opgaver:
  • Assignment 1-5.
Tekster til Assignment 5:
  • “Mysteries of the Brain: Brain-Computer Interface”, a video, NBC Learn website, 2015
  • “Ethical questions raised by brain-computer interfaces”, an article, BMC website, 2017

Vejledning til opgaverne
Den samlede eksaminationstid for Assignment 1-5 er 5 timer. Besvarelsen bedømmes som en helhed ud fra de faglige mål for niveauet. Der lægges vægt på beherskelsen af det engelske sprog, forståelse af forlægget og færdighed i skriftlig fremstilling på engelsk.

Det anbefales, at du skriver din besvarelse i skabelonen, som hentes ved klik på Template i menuen til venstre. Besvarelsen afleveres i ét dokument med opgaverne i rækkefølgen 1-5.

Sådan henviser du til tekst, video- og lydklip

Hvis du citerer, skal du angive kilde.
Alt anvendt materiale skal være engelsksproget og angives med kildehenvisninger.

Du kan henvise til dele af video- og lydklip, f.eks. ved at angive afspillerens minut- og sekundtal for henholdsvis starten og slutningen af klippet.

Generel skabelon for henvisninger til tekster

Alle henvisninger angives i fodnoter

Henvisning til kilderne (sources) i opgavematerialet
”In N.R.A. Fight, Companies Find There Is No Neutral Ground” (l. 15) eller (ll.15-17)

Henvisning til videoer i kilderne (sources) i opgavematerialet
”Why Americans Love Guns” (01:23-02:12)

Ved evt. brug af materiale fra undervisningen skal kilden angives.

Tekster i opgavesættet

Teksternes ortografi og tegnsætning følger forlæggene. Trykfejl er dog rettet.
Opsætningen følger ikke nødvendigvis forlæggene. Dog følges forlægget nøje, hvor opsætningen på den ene eller anden måde indgår i opgaven.

Assignment 1

Indsæt i alt 5 punktummer i nedenstående tekstuddrag og ret til stort begyndelsesbogstav.

Imagine you’re trying to understand a conversation between a big group of friends about a complicated subject, but you’re allowed to listen to only a single person you might be able to figure out the very rough topic of what the conversation is about, but definitely not all the details and nuances of the entire discussion.
There is also what we think of as a language barrier neurons communicate with each other through a complex interaction of electrical signals and chemical reactions this native electro-chemical language can be interpreted with electrical circuits, but it’s not easy similarly, when we speak back to the brain using electrical stimulation, it is with a heavy electrical “accent” this makes it difficult for neurons to understand what the stimulation is trying to convey in the midst of all the other ongoing neural activity.

Uddrag fra: “Melding mind and machine: How close are we?“

Assignment 2

Omskriv nedenstående sætninger til nægtende sætninger.
Vær opmærksom på, at der er tre verballed (udsagnsled) i sætning 4.

Eksempel: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are devices that measure signals from the brain (…)
Svar: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are not devices that do not measure signals from the brain (…)

1. This technology has varied uses (…)
2. (…) some of the key ethical issues it raises.
3. These devices use electrodes (…)
4. Though these examples are very futuristic, some companies have research goals that could be straight out of a science fiction movie

Uddrag fra: “Ethical questions raised by brain-computer interfaces”

Assignment 3

Omskriv nedenstående klip fra præsens (nutid) til perfektum (førnutid). Se bort fra, at omskrivningen kan ændre tekstens betydning og sproglige sammenhæng.

Uddrag fra: Mysteries of the Brain: Brain-Computer Interface

Tekstning af klippet:
To demonstrate how this technology works, Rao and his team of students use a BCI that allows them to study nonverbal communication. First, the student is fitted with an electroencephalogram or EEG cap, which is a series of electrodes placed on the scalp to record brain signals.

Assignment 4

Skriv en sammenhængende tekst på 75-125 ord, hvor du beskriver billedet, eller hvad der sker på billedet.
I din tekst skal du bruge følgende relative pronomener (henførende stedord): who, which, that og whose.
Desuden skal du bruge følgende tre præpositioner (forholdsord): behind, on og in.

Markér de anvendte pronomener og præpositioner i din tekst.

Fotograf: Alex Webb

Assignment 5: Brain-Computer Interface


Argumentative essay

Using all the texts from the given material, write an argumentative essay in which you account for and discuss issues relating to BCI, brain-computer interface.

Give your essay an appropriate headline.

Word count: 700-1000 words.

Source material: Your essay must include references to the source material.
All sources must be documented.

Ethical questions raised by brain-computer interfaces

A recent article published in BMC Medical Ethics explores the ethical aspects of brain-computer
interfaces (BCI): an emerging technology where brain signals are directly translated to outputs
with the help of machines. Here, two of the authors of the paper tell us more about the applications
of BCI, its portrayal in the media, and some of the key ethical issues it raises.

Sasha Burwell & Eric Racine 18 Dec 2017

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are devices that measure signals from the brain and translate them into
executable output with the help of a machine such as a computer or prosthesis. This technology has varied
uses, from assistive devices for disabled individuals to advanced video game control.

BCI is portrayed positively in films like Robocop Flickr: Wacko Photographer

BCI has been discussed by the media, and by science fiction
television and films. Sometimes this technology is positively
portrayed, such as the prosthetics seen in Robocop. Other
perspectives warn about how far this technology could go,
such as the literal plug-in brain interface in The Matrix, or
the game in Black Mirror’s episode “Playtest” that can create
a person’s worst nightmare. Though these examples are very
futuristic, some companies have research goals that could be
straight out of a science fiction movie: for example, Elon Musk’s
company Neuralink plans to create brain implants that improve
memory. The current reality of BCI, however, is more limited
than suggested by these futuristic portrayals.

At this time, the main use of BCI pursued by researchers is as
assistive technology for individuals with debilitating loss of
motor control, such as that caused by amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Late stage amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis patients often enter a “locked-in” state in which they
lose nearly all motor function, including the ability to speak. To
help these individuals, BCI electroencephalogram-based spelling
systems have been developed. These devices use electrodes to
record brain signals from the surface of the scalp, and users can
type messages by focusing on certain letters on a screen.


180235_billede3_tekst2 A B WATCH YOUR BRAIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Q W E R T Y U I O P A S D F G H J K L Z X C V B N M
The intendix BCI running on the laptop and user wearing the active electrodes.
Image sourced from Frontiers in Neuroengineering

Ethical questions
The unique direct connection BCI creates between our brains and computers raises important ethical
questions. We currently interact with computers with our peripheral nervous system: we use our fingers
to type an email on our laptop, or our vocal muscles to produce speech and interact with voice recognition
systems. In contrast, BCI captures signals directly from your central nervous system – your brain.

If a BCI device sees the thought and executes a harmful action, even though the user would have normally
not acted in this way alone, can we say that the BCI user is fully responsible?
This has interesting ethical implications, ranging from
questions of privacy to loss of humanity. One example is
ascription of responsibility for the output of a BCI. Perhaps
we have less control over our thoughts than over our actions
– many of us have experienced thinking something, yet
refrained from saying it aloud. If a BCI device sees the
thought and executes a harmful action, even though the user
would have normally not acted in this way alone, can we say
that the BCI user is fully responsible?

Another ethical question is the potentially deceptive role played by the media on perception of BCI. Current
BCI technology is not very reliable: spelling devices often cannot be controlled by fully locked-in patients
for unclear reasons. In general, most motor-based assistive systems are far more effective than BCI for
individuals who retain any motor function. An example is Stephen Hawking’s communication device,
which he controls with minute facial muscle movements and prefers over BCI systems.

However, media coverage of BCI tends to be overly positive and futuristic, with the phrases “mind reading”
and “cure” seen in articles. This misrepresentation can create an expectation gap where patients expect a
BCI device to be more effective or simpler to use than it actually is. Disappointment stemming from overly
high expectations could be associated with patient depression.

Many researchers see great potential in BCI devices, with implications for individuals struggling with severe
disabilities and for the future of entertainment. However, the ethics literature indicates that these benefits
could be accompanied by moral and societal challenges. It is therefore important that neuroscientists,
legislators, ethicists, and the general public discuss the impact this technology could have on legal and moral
responsibility, informed consent, and various other ethical issues. (...)



“Mysteries of the Brain: Brain-Computer Interface”, a video, NBC Learn website, 05-06-2015. Viewed 15-11-2018.

Sasha Burwell and Eric Racine, “Ethical questions raised by brain-computer interfaces”, an article, BMC website, 18-12-2017. Viewed 15-11-2018.

James Wu and Rajesh P. N. Rao, “Melding mind and machine: How close are we?“, an article, The Conversation website, 10-04-2017. Viewed 15-11-2018.

Photo by Alex Webb. From Magnum Photos website. Viewed 15-11-2018.

Illustration, from Sandip Kamat, “Brain computer interfaces — Why & why now?”, Medium website, 26-04-2017. Viewed 15-11-2018.